Education has long been recognised as a basic human right. It is a critically-important requisite for the productivity and well-being of individuals and for the economic and social development of entire societies. Because of this, the importance of equal access to education has been emphasised repeatedly in international conventions. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 state that education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit and individual capability (United Nations, 2017b, 2017a). Access to education and learning outcomes should not be affected by circumstances outside of the control of individuals, such as gender, birthplace, ethnicity, religion, language, income, wealth or disability.
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